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A Glance on the Lab-On-A-Chip in Human Immune System

A lab-on-a-chip device has been unveiled by scholars in Singapore which enables to segregate between healthy white blood cells and unhealthy ones, with involvement of diagnosing diseases.

The Nanyang Technological University’s scientists in Singapore have established a lab-on-a-chip program that enable to elaborate a person’s health condition based on a blood test in just within minutes, and it was published in the journal Lab on a chip.

It is significant for the diagnostic tools to be always at present in the laboratory for examiners to have view on to diagnose diseases and scan the root causes. Providing that there is a case of illness related to the immune system, a proper comprehension towards the structure and numbers of white blood cells of a patient would facilitate doctors to issue the best suitable choice of prescription available.

In the latest study, a group of scholars led by assistant professors mingled tiny liquid-occupied channels with electrical sensors to produce a chip which enable to provide the clinicians the insight of immune status of patients.

A blood sample of a patient has been passed through the microfluidic channels, by then different type of blood cells been grouped by measurement into each respective outlets, like they have been sorted by a coin sorting machine. The secluded white blood cells are been brought further to a unique channel where an electrical impedance is calculated for every blood cell at a relatively high speed of numerous of cells per second. The abnormal cells from the electrical impedance is normally higher than the impedance of normal cells as due to the fact that the abnormal cells present distinct membrane characteristics.

White blood cells are the guardian of our immune system which eliminate infiltrated viruses, bacteria and fungi. During the entering of bacteria entered into our bloodstream, our white blood cells (leukocyte) immediately discover the harmful bacteria and destroy it before it can causes any disease.

Factors cause of the increase of white blood cells

  • Infection – Infection may result in inflammation, thus when there is an infection generate more in the blood, the bone marrow will produce white blood cells to fight against the infection

  • Smoking (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) – COPD can be defined as a person possess an airway disease, for instance chronic bronchitis or emphysema that may result improper airflow. It is resulted from smoking which leads to inflammation in the lungs. Increase of inflammation will alert the white blood cells to defend.
  • Leukemia – leukemia is a cancer which vigorously increase your white blood cells. Risk of infection in patients will be increased due to leukemic white blood cells that are usually non-functional.

  • Immune System Disorders – Graves’ disease or Crohn’s are examples of auto-immune disorders which can trigger the increase level of white blood cells.

  • Stress – The level of emotional or physical stress level is proportion to the rate of white blood cells. The higher the level of stress of a person, the more the white blood cells been produced.

Foods which help regulate white blood cells

  • Omega-3 fatty acids – Omega- 3 fatty acids polyunsaturated fats which are a type of offers heart benefit and reduce the activity of phagocytes, a type of white blood cells that guard a person from bacteria.
  • Antioxidants – Antioxidants are a type of particle that guard our cells against harmful substances such as free radicals, that may bring damage to our cells, protein and DNA. We normally see free radicals enable peeled apples to become brown colour. Consume more phytochemicals may contribute to general well-being support of our human immune system.

The lab-on-a-chip device may facilitate physicians or clinicians in future to immediately obtain review into a patient’s immune system, and detect early signs of infection and inflammation that could lead to further need of in-depth tests. Patients will obtain tremendous treatment benefits to fight against diseases with the lab-on-a-chip-device.

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